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Posts Tagged ‘University of California’

Slugs and Snails can eat a plant overnight, only the bare stem remaining, if that.   Some good strategies are below.  For important details, please see University of California, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Snails and Slugs

  • Remove hiding places – leave a few hiding places (traps), remove the snails that gather there
  • Use drip irrigation to reduce humidity and moist surfaces = less habitat
  • Choose snail proof plants as possible
  • Use copper barriers – remember you have to polish them to keep them working
  • Make habitat for natural enemies ie tall poles for birds
  • Use bait like Sluggo/Escar-Go.  Sluggo is organic, safe for birds and animals, pets and children, can be used on the day of harvest, and is effective even after watering or rain!  Is it really ‘organic?’  See this article by conscientious Golden Gate Gardener

Aphids/White Flies Season  Keep an eye out for these critters in your broccoli, cabbages and kale.  The simplest thing to do is spray ‘em with a jet of water from the hose, both topside and underneath the leaves!  If the infestation gets beyond your tolerance, or the plant gets badly stunted or loses its healthy shape, remove the plant – don’t compost it.  Don’t procrastinate on this because aphids/white flies spread quickly.  This is one of the prime reasons to plant the same kind of plant in separate groupings or areas, rather than all in a row or a bunch, so the invaders can’t walk plant to plant.  If you do that, plant them far enough apart so their leaf tips don’t touch, or keep them trimmed so they don’t.  Keep a close watch!

Preventing Powdery Mildew!  Powdery mildew spores are wind spread to new hosts – that means from your plant to mine, or mine to yours!  Powdery Mildew is a common fungal disease that affects many types of plants.  The fungus will coat leaves, stems and flowers.  It looks like a white fuzz or powder, usually starting on shaded lower leaves, in that damp, humid microclimate, especially if we are watering frequently, not letting the area dry out.  This can lead to serious crop damage, low to no production, if left unchecked and can infect crops at any stage of the plants life.  However, UC Davis says ‘Powdery mildews generally do not require moist conditions to establish and grow, and normally do well under warm conditions; thus they are more prevalent than many other leaf-infecting diseases under California’s dry summer conditions.’  Darn.  More at UC Davis IPM on Powdery Mildew

Here are some inexpensive home remedies:

Prevention:  Dilute 1 part nonfat milk, with 10 parts water.  Spray liberally on affected plants.  Do not spray on plants when in flowering stage.  This treatment works so well usually one treatment is sufficient. Be sure to add a half teaspoon liquid dish soap so your mix will stick.  See about research and more details at Appalachian Feet.

Spraying milk on infected plant leaves with a solution of nine parts water to one part milk has shown to decrease powdery mildew by 90%. It has been reported that milk can boost the plant’s immune system, which also helps to fight powdery mildew and other diseases.

Preventative/Cure:  Baking Soda and Epsom Salt Remedy.  Baking soda increases pH levels on the leaf surface which will makes it difficult for the fungi spores to survive.  Foliar spray the plants liberally.  Wash off after one or two days.  The solution will leave a white haze on the leaves of the plants which does looks similar to the mildew.

1 quart water, 1 teaspoon baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) (or 1 Tablespoon to a gallon), 1 T Epsom Salt/Gallon
1 teaspoon cooking oil (canola, soya, whatever)
A drop or two of dishwash or soft soap (to disperse the oil and make it stick)
Apparently it has been found that either the oil or the soda will do the job, but they do better together. However, one needs to test the oil first as some sorts of foliage can be damaged by it.

If the mildew has already taken hold one can get rid of a lot of the spores and make the spray more effective by thoroughly hosing the leaves first.

Brief note on Epsom Salt, 13 % Sulfur. I read a post saying there is no research proving the use of Epsom Salt for fungus. Two paragraphs later, the same post says ‘Once an infected plant is pruned of all affected parts [having powdery mildew], it helps to spray the plant with an effective fungicide, including sulfur, lime-sulfur, neem oil or potassium bicarbonate [baking soda].’ Many gardeners swear by Epsom Salts as well. Try it!

Milk & Baking Soda is the third possible combination used effectively! While you are at it, add one crushed regular strength Aspirin! Salicylic acid, in aspirin, triggers a defense response in your plants!

All these recommendations are organic and completely safe to use. No safety clothing or gear needed.

5 Liter Red Dramm Watering CanDepending on how many plants you need to treat, you can use a hand spray bottle, a hose attached sprayer, a backpack rig or your watering can with a rose nozzle that turns up. This is probably the most efficient for the average home gardener. The idea of foliar treatment, or feeding, is to spray the whole plant, both tops and bottoms of leaves. A lightweight plastic can with a long spout gets into your plant and you can lift it higher for trellis plants like beans, peas, cucumbers, squashes. The Dramm Can rose can be twisted so the spray goes upward to get the undersides of the leaves where pests and diseases hang out.

Please!  Be a good neighbor.  Prevent this common fungus, don’t let it blow into your neighbor’s veggies!

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The Green Bean Connection newsletter started as correspondence for the Santa Barbara CA USA, Pilgrim Terrace Community Garden. All three of Santa Barbara city community gardens are very coastal. During late spring/summer we are in a fog belt/marine layer area most years, locally referred to as the May grays, June glooms and August fogusts. Keep that in mind compared to the microclimate niche where your veggie garden is.

Love your Mother! Plant bird & bee food! Think grey water! Grow organic! Bless you for being such a wonderful Earth Steward!

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Happy October, Month of Magic!

The next months…so you can plan ahead!       

October  Transplants of all fall crops, but specially of cabbages and artichokes.  Cut Strawberry runners off to chill for Nov planting.
November  Seeds of onions for slicing.  Wildflowers from seed (don’t let the bed dry out).  Strawberries in no later than Nov 5.  More transplants of winter veggies.
December is winter’s June!  Crops are starting to come in, it’s maintenance time!      

My campaign this fall is for garden cleanup, and turning the soil to expose the fungi that affects our tomatoes, and other plants, so the fungi dries and dies!     

Purple Broccoli, Bright Lights Chard, Cauliflower, Yellow Mangetout Snow Peas, Radishes or Beets of all colors, ‘Licous Red Lettuces!

This is Southern California’s second Spring!  Time to plant your winter garden, all the Brassicas, that’s, cabbage, brocs, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, collards, kales, plus celery, chard and peas, peas, peas!  All kinds!  And what I call the ‘littles,’ the veggies you plant all year, beets, bunch onions (the ones that don’t bulb), carrots (bonemeal yes, fresh manure no), radish, spinach, arugula, and, especially, all kinds of lettuces!   Plant gift plants or bowls or baskets for the holidays!  Start making holiday gifts, herbal wreaths, powdered herbs, pretty vinegars and oils, shampoos, soaps, or candles!      

Winter weather?  Bring it on!  Starting to cool down now!  Your plants will grow fast then start to slow down.  Less weeds and insects.  Aphids & White Flies are a winter crop problem (see below please).  Some people prefer the cool slower pace of winter gardening to the more phrenetic hot summer labor and work of big harvests, distribution, storage.  Harvesting cold hardy vegetables after they have been hit with a touch of frost can enhance the flavor and increase the sweetness of greens such as kale and collards.     

Extend the crop! Cut and come again!  Harvest your big greens – kale and collards, and lettuces leaf by leaf rather than cutting your plant down.  Many lettuces will ‘come back’ even if you cut them off an inch or two above ground.  Leave the stalk in the ground, see what happens!  Rather than pulling your bunch/table onions, cut them off about an inch to 2 inches above the ground.  They will come back 3 to 4 times.  Leave a potato in the ground to make more potatoes.  After you cut the main broccoli head off, let the side sprouts grow and snip them for your salads or steam them.  Cabbages?  Cut off right below the head, then let them resprout, forming several smaller heads at the leaf axils.     

Gather your last lingering seeds midday on a sunny dry day.  Dry a few seeds from your favorite tomatoes!  Sidedress continuing and producing plants.  Then cleanup!  Remove funky habitat for overwintering insect pests, fungi.       

Build wire bottomed raised beds for gopher protection.  For very useful information, please see University of California, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Pocket Gophers.     

Prepare your soil!      

  • If you are a new gardener at Pilgrim Terrace, ask other gardeners, or the previous person who had your plot, how the soil  was tended.  Some plots may need no amending, others may need a lot.  Add compost, manures, seaweeds, worm castings as needed.  Some people do the whole garden at once, others conserve valuable materials by preparing only where they will specifically plant, for example, a large plant like a broc.  If it is a lettuce bed that you will do repeated plantings in, you might opt to do the whole bed at once.
  • Since mulch keeps the soil cool, some people pull it to the side in winter, to let the sun heat the soil on cool days.
  • Simple soil test!  Test the soil by putting a drop of vinegar in a teaspoon or so. If it fizzes, it’s too alkaline. Then test it by putting in baking soda mixed with a little water. If it fizzes, it’s too acidic.

Garden Design       

  • In addition to planting your veggies, plan ahead to plant flowers, to always have some in bloom, to attract pollinators.  Borage is a lovely plant, blooms all year, has purple blue star flowers that are edible and good for you!  Toss a few on top of your salads!
  • Make habitat!  Plants for beneficial insects, poles for birds, rocks for lizards! 
  • Plant tall in the North, the mountain end of our plots; plant shorties in the South.  This is especially important in our winter gardens because of the low sun long shadows.
  • Give your big plants plenty of room to become big; plant fillers and littles (beets, bunch onions – the ones that don’t bulb, carrots, radish, spinach, arugula, lettuces) on their sunny south sides!
  • Put plants that like the same amount of water together (hydrozoning). 
  • Put plants together that will be used in the same way, for example, salad plants like lettuces, bunch onions, celery, cilantro.
  • Biodiversity.  Planting the same kind of plant in different places throughout your garden.  It can be more effective that row cropping or putting all of one plant in one place, where if disease or a pest comes, you lose them all as the disease or pest spreads from one to all.
  • Layering example:  Transplant peas at the base of any beans you still have.

How to plant!       

  • This is the time to put your mycorrhiza fungi to work!  One of the great things mycorrhiza does is assist Phosphorus uptake.  Of the N-P-K on fertilizers, P is Phosphorus that helps roots and flowers grow and develop.  Sprinkle it on the roots of your transplants when you plant them!  More about mycorrhiza:  http://www.mycorrhizae.com/index.php?cid=468&    http://www.mastergardeners.org/newsletter/myco.html      Island Seed & Feed carries it.
  • Use vigorous fresh seeds, choose vibrant not-fruiting transplants that preferably aren’t root bound (having a solid mass of roots).  If the transplant is pretty big for the container, pop it out of the container to make sure it isn’t root bound.  If it is the only one there, and you still want it, can’t wait, see what John R. King, Jr (2 min video) has to say on how to rehabilitate your plant!
  • Lay down some Sluggo (See Slugs & Snails below) right away, even before seedlings sprout, when you put your transplants in, so your plant isn’t overnight snail and slug smorgasbord! 

Strawberry Runners!  Mid Oct cut off runners, gently dig up if they have rooted, shake the soil off.  Clip all but two or three leaves off, tie ‘em together in loose bunches. Plastic bag them and put in the back of your fridge for 20 days.  Plant them Nov 5 to 10!  Prechilling your plants makes them think they had a cold winter.  When days get longer and warmer, they will produce fruit, not as much vegetative growth.  You can then either keep your plants that produced this year, or remove and compost them, start fresh with new plants!     

Watering – Morning when you can because plants drink during the day, and we want them to dry so they don’t mildew!  Water underneath, especially late beans, and your new peas, who are especially susceptible to mildew.  Except for your short and shallow rooted plants, once a week and deeply is good unless there is a hot spell or rain.  Then, check ’em.  Poke a stick in the ground to see if the soil is moist under the surface.     

Happy playing in the dirt!

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