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International Year of Pulse Crops 2016

2016 International Permaculture Day is using this phrase: feed soil and people with pulses! What are Pulses and what do they do?!

Pulse crops Pulse: from the Latin puls meaning thick soup or potage, pulses are the edible seeds of plants in the legume family. Technically, the term “pulse” is reserved for crops harvested solely for DRY SEED.That would be DRIED peas, edible beans, lentils and chickpeas/garbanzo. Pulses are very high in protein and fibre, low in fat.

Importantly, pulses are nitrogen-fixing crops that improve the environmental sustainability of annual cropping systems. Many of you know that means they take Nitrogen from the air, ‘fix’ it in little nodules on their roots, in essence, gather their own Nitrogen, N being what plants need to live and grow. Planting these crops densely feeds your soil.

There’s more!!! Pulse Canada has gathered the data!

  • Pulse crops produce a number of different compounds that feed soil microbes and benefit soil health.
  • Pulse crops have a significant impact on soil biology, increasing soil microbial activity even after the pulses are harvested.
  • Pulses have also been shown to exude greater amounts and different types of amino acids than non-legumes and the plant residues left after harvesting pulse crops have a different biochemical composition (e.g. Carbon/Nitrogen ratio) than other crop residues.
  • The ability of pulses to feed the soil different compounds has the effect of increasing the number and diversity of soil microbes.

Definitely crops grow better in soils that are more “alive” with a diverse array of soil organisms! These organisms break down and cycle nutrients more efficiently, feeding the crops as they grow, helping crops to access nutrients.

In addition, a large, diverse population of soil organisms ‘crowds out’ disease-causing bacteria and fungi, making for healthier plants. Growing pulses breaks disease, weed and insect cycles. But of course!

Growing pulse crops in ROTATION with other crops enables the soil environment to support these large, diverse populations of soil organisms. That’s why we grow ‘green manure’ crops – bell beans (a small variety of fava), Austrian peas, vetch mixes – over winter to feed upcoming summer crops. When you remove plantings of peas or beans, cut them off at ground level rather than pull and remove those roots with the valuable nodules!

When & Where to Plant Other than for food, plant pulse soil feeding cover crops, green manure, when you want to take a break. Don’t just let your land go, give it something to do while you are away. Let it feed and restore itself! It’s so easy to do. Just wet the seed with an inoculant & fling the seed about! Keep the seedlings moist until they are up a bit, then all you have to do is water once a week or so, the plants will do the rest. If your climate is warm enough, plant one area each winter. Let it rest from other soil using crops. Plant where you will grow heavy feeders like tomatoes the following summer.

Pulse Nutrition!

Pulses provide a number of nutritional benefits that positively impact human health! Pulse is gluten-free, can reduce “bad” cholesterol, has a low glycemic index, and virtually no fatSee more!

Pulses taste great. Rich in fiber and protein, they also have high levels of minerals such as iron, zinc, and phosphorous as well as folate and other B-vitamins. High in protein, they reduce the environmental footprint of our grocery carts. Put it all together? Healthy people and a healthy planet.

Pulses come in a variety of shapes, sizes and colours and can be consumed in many forms including whole or split, ground into flours or separated into fractions such as protein, fibre and starch. That could be delicious red bean salsa, chiles, split pea soup, plain or spiced hummus, falafel balls! Dairy free pulse cakes and cheesecakes, ice cream!

Pulses do not include fresh beans or peas. Although they are related to pulses because they are also edible seeds of podded plants, soybeans and peanuts differ because they have a much higher fat content, whereas pulses contain virtually no fat.

There are delish recipes online, and Pulse recipe books – main dishes, desserts and baked goods! Put more of these good foods in your life! Check out http://www.cookingwithpulses.com/ !

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The Green Bean Connection started as correspondence for the Santa Barbara CA USA Pilgrim Terrace Community Garden. We are very coastal, during late spring/summer in a fog belt/marine layer area most years, locally referred to as the May grays, June glooms and August fogusts. Keep that in mind compared to the microclimate niche where your veggie garden is. Bless you for being such a wonderful Earth Steward!

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February! SOIL & SEED Month!

Please see February 2010 for tips on aphids/white flies, slugs/snails, gophers, soil, seed starting basics! 

When there are warm days, it is ever so tempting to plant up summer veggies!  Don’t do it.  Not yet.  Start seeds. 

Depending on how much space you have, plant a last round of your very favorite winter crops – lettuces, beets, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, chard, kale, kohlrabi, potatoes, radishes, turnips.  Bare-root asparagus and artichokes.  I forgot to tell you last month, you could start zucchini!  At Pilgrim Terrace Community Garden we had an elder gardener who always started his in January, early February, and had great zucchini way before everyone else!  Other than zuchs, really look at those days to maturity, and add the number of days you expect for harvest duration.  If you plant a long maturing plant that would be harvested for some time, think if you would rather have that space for an early round of a summer veggie you love more.  Choose mildew and disease resistant varieties for your late peas.  

Keep sidedressing your producing plants, protect your tasty lettuces from slugs and snails.  Keep watch for aphids, and, if you disturb your plant and a little cloud of white things fly off, you have white flies.  Spray those little buggers off asap so they don’t spread to your other plants or someone else’s!  Keep up with your harvesting.  Wait until it warms up some more to prune frost damaged plants.  Even wait until next month to fertilize.  

But do prepare your soil for March summer veggie planting.  Dig if you must – I’m a no-dig, no weed person who leaves the living soil structure intact [see Gaia’s Garden, 2nd edition, chapter on soil].  Instead, prepare your soil by layering good stuff on top, called Lasagna Gardening, sheet composting, composting in place, or on-the-ground composting!  Garden smart!  If it is already there, you don’t have to move it from the compost pile to where it is needed!  Build your soil in place or in your new raised beds!  If you are putting raised beds on top of your lawn, lay down several layers of heavy cardboard first, to stop the grass and weeds, thoroughly soak it, then layer, layer, layer!  When they get there, your plant’s roots will easily poke their way through the cardboard.  Definitely attach gopher proof wire mesh to the bottom of your raised bed frame before you start filling it, unless you are creating your garden on top of concrete or a roof.  If you are container gardening, check out Patricia Lanza’s book Lasagna Gardening for Small Spaces: A Layering System for Big Results in Small Gardens and Containers: Garden in Inches, Not Acres. 

Healthy layering should be 2 dry/Carbon to 1 wet/Nitrogen. 

Carbon – carbon-rich matter (like branches, stems, dried leaves, peels, bits of wood, bark dust or sawdust, shredded brown paper bags, coffee filters, conifer needles, egg shells, hay, peat moss, wood ash) gives compost its light, fluffy body.
Nitrogen – nitrogen or protein-rich matter (manures, food scraps, leafy materials like lawn clippings and green leaves) provides raw materials for making enzymes. 

  • Lay twigs or straw first, a few inches deep. This aids drainage and helps aerate the pile.
  • ADD dry materials – straw, leaves and wood ashes. If you have wood ashes, sprinkle in thin layers, or they will clump together and be slow to break down.  Fine chopped, smaller materials decompose faster.
  • Lay on manure, green manure ( clover, buckwheat, wheatgrass ) or any nitrogen source. This activates the compost pile and speeds the process along.  Put on rinsed seaweed for minerals, scatter some yarrow sprigs to further speed decomposition, and, of course, your kitchen food waste. 
  • Think how that pile is going to decompose lower and lower.  Build enough layers to get the amount of soil you need.  Could be 18” high.
  • If you like, sprinkle some microbe rich topsoil over it all to ‘inoculate’ with living soil organisms that will immediately go to work.  Add a few handfuls of red wriggler compost worms.  Add any other amendments that make you happy.
  • Install some pathways.  Don’t walk on your oxygen rich breathing brew and squeeze the life out of it, or crush your worms and soil structure!  Keep things fluffy for good soil aeration and water absorption.   
  • If you need to, for aesthetic reasons, cover the compost with a pretty mulch that will break down slowly.  Spread it aside when you are ready to plant.  It could be down leaves; if you need your soil in that area to be slightly acidic, cover with pine needles (strawberries).
  • If things get stinky, add more carbon.
  • You want to plant NOW, or the same day you layer?  Can do!  Or your instant soil wasn’t so instant?  OK, here’s the instant remedy.  Make planting holes in your layers, put in some compost you purchased or have on hand, mycorrhizal fungi, and plant!  The rest will catch up, and the heat from the composting material underneath will warm your plants!  You WILL have a fine garden!  

If you do also need a traditional compost pile for spot needs, consider “No-turn” composting!  The biggest chore with composting is turning the pile from time to time. However, with ‘no-turn composting’, your compost can be aerated without turning.  The secret is to thoroughly mix in enough coarse material, like straw – little air tubes, when building the pile. The compost will develop as fast as if it were turned regularly, and studies show that the nitrogen level may be even higher than turned compost.  With ‘no-turn’ composting, add new materials to the top of the pile, and harvest fresh compost from the bottom of the bin.

So here are 3 ways to save garden time and your back!  1)  No digging!  2)  Compost in place, no moving it.  3) No compost turning!  Uh huh.

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