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Permaculture Design Food Forest Apple Tee Guild Community Gaia's Garden Toby Hemenway

Beautiful fruit tree guild/community from Gaia’s Garden by Toby Hemenway

Permaculture is more than growing food; it includes how we live with each other, how we live with the land. It’s living sustainably, a way of life!

It started in the modern sense with Australian Bill Mollison, researcher, author, scientist, teacher and biologist. His legacy was carried on by his student David Holmgren. Bill’s most famous book is the 1991 Introduction to Permaculture, still a great read today!

Geoff Lawton has taken Permaculture to over thirty countries around the world, to teach, to restore deserts. Permaculture uses nature’s ways of bringing land back to life. It has been done on many continents. The UK and China recently announced ambitious projects to plant millions of trees in an effort to create new forests. Feb 13, 2018 – China has reportedly reassigned over 60,000 soldiers, and some of their police force, to plant trees in a bid to combat pollution by increasing the country’s forest coverage.

High altitudes Austrian Sepp Holzer is another hero. His book is Sepp Holzer’s Permaculture: A Practical Guide to Small-Scale, Integrative Farming and Gardening. One admirer says: ‘Sepp’s approaches to horticulture and agriculture generally sound CRAZY! And then you hear the logic behind it and see the amazing results. The dude is a genius!’ He’s great to hear in person. It is said he was doing permaculture before he ever heard the word! And I’ll bet some of you are too!  

Gaia’s Garden, the best-selling permaculture book in the world, by Toby Hemenway brought permaculture to the average American veggie gardener, urban and suburban growers. His chapter on living SOIL changed my life! It woke me to how gardening is a 100% living adventure!

His book explains how ‘many people mistakenly think that ecological gardening—which involves growing a wide range of edible and other useful plants—can take place only on a large, multiacre scale. As Hemenway demonstrates, it’s fun and easy to create a “backyard ecosystem” by assembling communities of plants that can work cooperatively and perform a variety of functions, including:

  • Building and maintaining soil fertility and structure
  • Catching and conserving water in the landscape
  • Providing habitat for beneficial insects, birds, and animals
  • Growing an edible “forest” that yields seasonal fruits, nuts, and other foods’

‘[The] revised and updated edition features a new chapter on urban permaculture, designed especially for people in cities and suburbs who have very limited growing space. Whatever size yard or garden you have to work with, you can apply basic permaculture principles to make it more diverse, more natural, more productive, and more beautiful. Best of all, once it’s established, an ecological garden will reduce or eliminate most of the backbreaking work that’s needed to maintain the typical lawn and garden.’ That’s quite a claim, but it’s true!

How I got to know permaculture was the large scale version, first selecting the land – ideally choosing an area that has higher land that drains to a lower area, a creek is lovely. You can have hillside terracing, your veggies are watered, and you have fish ponds below that water and fertilize veggies there! Food forests can be a part of this setup with the seven levels of plants. First you plant core trees, install shrubs as undergrowth, on down to ground covers and lowest level veggies. Trees, like other plants and us, get along with some plants, not others. Tree guilds, communities, are important to establish. Depending on how much land you have, select your trees wisely.

Here are three basic diagrams to help your decision making:

1) Wind protection, keeping your garden warm in a cool climate or dryer in a moist shore area climate, or conversely, more sheltered from drying winds in a dry climate! This U shaped keyhole garden lets the warmest southern sunshine in. Adjust it to your needs.

Garden Design U-Shaped Sun Trap Keyhole Permaculture

2) Food Forests – Guilds/Communities!

Food Forest - Forest Garden 7 Level Design
There are variations! Every gardener’s situation and wants are different. This is a guide to stir your thinking. If you have a lot of wind, the shrub layer can be super important to the veggies. Adjust as makes sense. IE # 3, the shrub layer height depends on what you choose. I like blueberries, and blackberries are a lot taller!!!

A remarkable feature of Forest Gardens is when many who have never seen such a thing before see them for the first time, not being familiar with the food plants of an area, they don’t know it is a garden! Indigenous peoples ‘gardens’ blend so perfectly with nature, unknowing visitors think that area is simply the nearby perimeter undergrowth surrounding the village!

3) Here is an Apple Tree guild/community example. Look how much can happen there! If you don’t do that, put in a legume and oats cover crop to feed and condition the soil. Maybe you would do that the first year. Here’s a more extensive post Living Mulch! When, Which and Why?!
Design Guild Community Apple Tree Permaculture
Another permie principle is to be as self sufficient as possible. Select soil enhancing legume trees, trees for quick growing firewood, trees with nuts for protein. Have fish and chicken for protein and manures! Raise bunnies, goats and sheep for fur/wool for clothing, and poop and meat. Make your own energy.

However, if you are gardening at a community garden in a 10X20′ plot like I am, you scale down to the most simple applications of the principles. You take sun/shade, high/low areas, wind direction, into account, plant cover crops when the soil needs refurbishing. You might install a small water pool or plant water loving plants in a low area near the hose. Plant companions to enhance growth, protect from pests and diseases. Intentionally include habitat for beneficial insects, birds and animals in your space or nearby. Install wild bee homes and owl houses.

Row or monoculture planting, like farm plantings, are ‘unnatural,’ not as useful as biodiversity like in nature. Research has shown home gardeners efficiently produce more per square foot than farms do! We don’t need tractor or harvest machinery space. Plants can be grown side by side, trellised above and grown under the biggers, around and among! Even in rows, ie lettuce, carrots, onion, kale can grow all together, from tall to short, harvesting is no problem! If you plant along the sun’s path of the day, you can grow on both sides of the tallest plants!

Companion Planting

Organic growers are combining strips of bright flowers and legumes among their plantings to bring bees, enhance their soil, interrupt pest patterns, eliminate the need for pesticides! We can do that on a smaller scale, and not necessarily in rows! In drought areas savvy farmers are using land differently, following the contours of hillsides, along canyon walls, like farmers all over the world have done for centuries. They are resurrecting old tricks like cultivating after a rain to prevent evaporation.

Pest Pesticides Reduction Flower Stripes Habitat in Fields

Seed Saving is clearly a vital part of permaculture. In the old days, isolated people’s lives depended on it. Saving our local seeds, from our best plants, each year, yields super plants with improved production. Those plants love that location, that soil. They love you and how you garden! Seed Saving is still a very vital ritual.

Getting a Permaculture Design Certificate, PDC, is most admirable, recognized around the world. In Santa Barbara CA area Santa Barbara City College offers a right smart course by two savvy instructors! Nearby Quail Springs Permaculture Farm offers a 2 week intensive taught by well-known instructors. You live-on-the-land, applying the principles as you learn them. It is a treasured experience. Getting your certificate with the world renowned Larry Santoyo, water specialist, is much coveted.

There are many permaculture publications, including ecopsychology!

There are events worldwide! This site lists events important to those of us interested in permaculture. This page by Oregon State University lists permaculture organizations worldwide!

The idea is to get maximum return per the land’s ability to support it in harmony with nature and each other.

Permaculture applies to all facets of your life. Being thoughtful about growing fruitful relationships with people is part of permaculture. We are all part of the greater ecosystem. Humans need specific care. Special kindnesses, sharing, to be able to secure our needs in times of stress – illnesses, injury, losing a loved one, crop failure, hard seasons or years. Collaborating like companion plants certainly enhances our chances. Plants can’t go walkabout, but we can. We can do good for many other humans and spread the good word. We can share our abundance. At times we can trade one thing for another.

Stand way back. Get a good look at the big picture. Take time to be thoughtful. The earliest facets of your Permaculture choices, like the selection of trees, are the most permanent, that shape the long term plan, the backdrop for years to come. Let go of artificial time limits. Wait. Have patience, learn more. If you don’t feel quite sure yet, talk with more others. ‘Mistakes,’ like growing the ‘wrong’ tree, could have 20 or 30 year consequences. Ask others why and how they got started, what mistakes they made, how, if they could be, repaired. What were their successes that have done well for them. Search online for the pros and cons of your ideas. If you are on totally new ground you may just have to fly by the seat of your pants! Take images to document your experiences. Make a few reminder notes as to why you made that decision at that time.

The most natural times to establish a new permaculture garden in southern climates are at season changes, but, of course, there are variables for many reasons. Start when you can. In northern areas we’re looking at spring. Well before that time, be researching and designing – notice nature’s ways with your land and let that be part of what shapes your plans. Smaller shrubs, veggies, can be adjusted along the way all year every year.

Permaculture isn’t really something new. It is way more complicated than these few words. I hope you look into it further for yourself. We are each so different, no two situations quite the same, each are making our own unique contribution. It takes a village. Please make comments, leave a trail of knowledge for others to follow. Blog your experiments and experiences. That is like fertile soil to our minds that translates to our gardens.

Live in as good a way as possible in ultimate harmony with nature! 

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Love your Mother! Plant bird & bee food! Think grey water! Grow organic! Bless you for being such a wonderful Earth Steward!

The Green Bean Connection started as correspondence for the Santa Barbara CA USA Pilgrim Terrace Community Garden. All three of Santa Barbara’s community gardens are very coastal. During late spring/summer we are often in a fog belt/marine layer most years, locally referred to as the May grays, June glooms and August fogusts. In 2018 they lasted into September and October! Keep that in mind compared to the microclimate niche where your veggie garden is.

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Carrots Rainbow! Rose, Classic Orange, Purple Sun, White Satin
Carrot Rainbow! Rose, Classic Orange, Purple Sun, White Satin

Colorful carrots brighten your table any time of year! Their pretty ferny foliage is lovely in your garden. It is so much fun pulling gorgeous fat, long, colorful carrots! Downright satisfying. What a beautiful fragrance…. Tops can be eaten too, or are prime in your compost.

Varieties Galore! Thumbelinas – fun for the kids to grow, stubbies, conical, to long, long pointy skinnys. If you are hungry sooner, choose early maturing shorter varieties. Plant different kinds for the fun of it! With mixed seed packs you never know which color you will pull up! Danvers is an excellent choice for cooking. It has a higher fiber content than Nantes sorts. It grows well in heavier soils and stores well in the soil at maturity. Super juicing carrots are Healthmaster or Danvers. Autumn King and Scarlet Nantes are excellent cold tolerant varieties.

Carrot French Heirloom ParisianAt left is the French heirloom Parisian, an early orange-red carrot that grows almost more like the shape of a large radish. It excels in clay or rocky soil where other carrots have problems developing properly.

Carrots are scrumptious companions! Planted a little too closely and not thinned, they twist together in the garden, but better yet, is they enhance peas while they are growing! They grow way slower than peas, lasting while pole peas are getting their full height. They are quite faster than cabbage, so perfect to grow among cabbages until the cabbages would finally shade them out! Onions, leeks and chives help repel the carrot root fly. Carrots thrive when Cilantro, Chamomile, Marigold are planted with them.

Colorful and dramatic Recipe! Roasted whole Carrots, Green Tahini Sauce, Pomegranate Seeds!Skinny carrots for roasting are a treat! The Tiny Farm blog says: Sprint, a new Amsterdam forcing variety (good for growing in challenging conditions) matures long and slender in a listed 42 days. That’s fast, over two weeks ahead of the quickest regular carrot we grow (the fabulous Nelson).

SOIL Stone/rock free loose soil is best for those long rooted champions! But they are smart enough to wind their way around a stone or two if you ask them to grow there. They like steadily moist soil. If the soil gets dry and you give them a big soak, they are likely to split, and that’s not pretty. NO manure! It makes them hairy and they fork.

Their favorite season in SoCal is winter. The soil is usually more continuously moist, except in this drought. Best germination soil temps are 50 F to 75 F, but they will germinate at as low as 40 F.

Plant from seed. Soaking seeds, and preSprouting makes a lot of sense. Advantages of seed soaking are a speedier garden – your seeds germinate sooner, and you get  more complete germination of all seeds planted! Be sure your seed is fresh to get a high % of germination! The seeds are hard, so if you don’t at least presoak, figure on 14 to 21 days of keeping them moist in the garden before they germinate

PreSoaking is easy. Pop the number of seeds you want to grow, with few extra for whatever might happen to them, in a cup of warm water, soak over night. On a raised edge plate, lay them on one side of half a folded paper towel. Lay the other half over and pat dry. Easy peasy! Weather tip: Don’t soak your seeds the night before a rain is expected. Wait for good planting conditions. Rain compacts the soil, making it harder for tiny sprouts to break through, and seeds might be washed away or tiny sprouts broken if sprouting seeds are shifted in wet soil.

PreSprouting is devilishly clever! Sprouted seed will grow in soils too cool for germination! You take only the sprouted seed to plant into the garden – that’s a form of 100% germination! Grab a raised edge plate, lay a paper towel on it. Spread your seeds out a 1/2 to an inch apart, so ther is room for their sprouts. Spritz them with good water. Lay another paper towel over them and dampen it too. Put the plate in a plastic bag, tie it, keep moist until they germinate!

Just before planting time, put them on a dry paper towel and let them drain if needed. Grab some tweezers and plant very carefully immediately. The sprout is the root, so it goes down. Not to worry if they just plop in the planting hole any which way. They know what to do and will find their way, but the seed itself needs to be at the right planting depth so the little leaves can get up. Since many carrot seeds are tiny, this reduces waste of your seeds, and no time is lost later thinning these tiny plants!

If you don’t presprout ~ Carrot seeds are very small, and it is difficult to obtain a stand if the soil is crusty. Try mixing carrot seed with dry sand to get even distribution. Then, instead of covering with soil, cover the seed 1/8-inch deep with sawdust, vermiculite or manufactured potting soil. Water the row soon after planting is complete. This method will allow the seeds to stay wet and prevent crusting.

Plant at the spacing they need at their maturity. For broad carrot shoulders like Chantenay, plant as much as 3″ apart. For baby carrots, plant closely, a half inch or slightly less apart. If you overplant, thin the carrots when they are 1 to 2 inches tall. Best to cut off with tiny scissors rather than pull and disturb or damage the remaining plants’ roots.

Keeping the seeds moist is a commitment that must be kept. Do put down Sluggo or the like, before the seedlings come up because seedlings can be mowed overnight. Weeding is an important delicate operation. Carefully clip little weeds away rather than pulling and disturbing or breaking tiny carrot roots.

Shoulders, hilling. Carrots naturally push up and grow above the soil line. Planting seeds deeper doesn’t compensate. Instead, have extra soil handy to hill over those shoulders. Uncovered shoulders turn green and need to be cut away.

Harvest when their orange color is bright, when their flavor and texture are optimum. Water well prior to harvest to ensure the roots have absorbed their maximum capacity of water and are easy to pull. Don’t harvest carrots too soon, sugars are formed relatively late.

STORAGE Remove the foliage right away. It takes moisture from the carrot, causing it to wilt. Put them in the coolest part of the refrigerator in a plastic bag or wrapped in a paper towel, which will reduce the amount of condensation that is able to form. Research shows the especially valuable (all-E)-beta-carotene isomer is well-retained in carrots stored properly. Store away from apples, pears, potatoes and other fruits and vegetables that produce ethylene gas since it will cause them to become bitter.

Culinary Carrots! Eat them rinsed and raw right at the garden. Many a carrot never makes it to the kitchen! Pare into thick strips, flowerettes. Diagonally chop, ripple slice, dice. Make lengthy Julienne quarters. Freshly shred into green salads, add as garnish on top! Make traditional carrot & raisin salad. Carrots, celery and greens juices, smoothies. Steamed & stewed. Roasted, grilled on the summer barbie. Add as nutritious and delicious Carrot Winter Cake, muffins, cookies, pancakes and waffles, cheesecake! Spicylicious Carrot jam. Carrot ice cream ~ See these images, with recipe links, that will positively make you drool!

Nutrition?! Oh, yes! Peel your carrots? Old grocery store carrots may have bitter skins, but not likely straight from the ground from your organic garden! Clean is better and keep the skin! Or pare and give the skins to your compost! But here is where ORGANIC counts! Organic produce isn’t sprayed with pesticides that collect in the skin, the plant’s natural filter against foreign bodies – probably why non organic carrot skins are bitter…. “Organic Authority” magazine reports that carrots contain a high degree of phytonutrients, many of which are found in the skin or immediately beneath it. Consuming phytonutrients leads to a number of health benefits, including lessening your risk of cancer and boosting your immune response. The benefit carrots have always been known for is their high beta carotene content, which improves eye and skin health and also boosts your immune system.

If you must ‘peel,’ here is a tip from kc girl online: I use one of those white scouring cloths used for non-stick pans (instead of the brush). Hold it in your palm, wrap it around the carrot, and run it up and down with a little twisting action while under running water. It kind of “sands” the carrot and takes off just a little of the skin.

Purple Carrots! The ORIGINAL wild carrot was white or purple! The domestic carrot we eat today has been bred for size, a less woody core and sweetness! Purple carrots have even more beta carotene (good vision) than their orange cousins! Like blueberries, they get their purple pigment from anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that protect key cell components. They grab and hold harmful free radicals in the body, help prevent heart disease by slowing blood clotting, and are anti-inflammatory (arthritis). So, they are cheaper than blueberries, higher in beta carotene, and you can grow them just about anywhere!

Safety note! If you have diabetes or are at risk for developing the condition, read this info from the UK World Carrot Museum!

Carrot Umbels - Buds to Seeds
Green buds, white flowers, brown seeds!

Carrots, Daucus carota subsp. sativus, are in the Umbelliferae family, make these magical flower heads, then seeds! Every season let one or two grow up and make beauty in your garden – flower food for the pollinators/beneficial insects, then seeds for you and the birds!

Carrots are one of the ten most economically important vegetables crops in the world, China, Russia and the US producing the most. California produces over 85 percent of all car­rots grown in the United States, Kern County the most. That has probably changed with the drought…. However, the week long Holtville Annual Carrot Festival is good to go January 30 to February 7 in 2016!

Carrots have true Fans!  There are carrot events worldwide!

Mazel tov! To your very excellent health!

Carrot Juice! Mazel tov!

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The Green Bean Connection started as correspondence for our SoCal Santa Barbara CA USA, Pilgrim Terrace Community Garden. All three of Santa Barbara city community gardens are very coastal. During late spring/summer we are in a fog belt/marine layer area most years, locally referred to as the May grays, June glooms and August fogusts. Keep that in mind compared to the microclimate niche where your veggie garden is. Bless you for being such a wonderful Earth Steward!

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The 3rd Annual Seed Swap was a great success!  I found some great fava beans donated by Tom Shepherd, Shepherd Farms.  I’m still looking for some jicama seeds.  There were wonderful talks, was lively music, new friendships made, and, of course, seeds gathered for mighty planting!  If you didn’t make it this year, be sure to come next year! 

Feb 5 Banana Plantation & Mulching Party at Mesa Harmony Garden!  8 AM to 1 PM, Holy Cross Church, Meigs/Cliff Dr.  Wheelbarrows, picks, pitchforks, shovels needed – bring if you can!  Over 100 fruit and nut trees have been planted already, now it’s BANANA planting time!  Come see the 34 plot community garden and the project!  Get inspired!  

Feg 14  Happy Valentine’s Day! 

Feb 19 The Seed Ball Making Party!  11 AM to 4  PM at Plaza de Vera Cruz  – across the street from the Saturday Farmer’s Market, where Sol Foods Festival was.   If there is rain the new location will be posted on eatthestreet.org.  If you have seeds to share, please do bring them.  And bring some snacks or dishes to share if you wish!

What is a seed ball?  Think of them like this:  Little Adobe Gardens  Imagine then, a clay ball the size of a large marble. Imagine also that it contains seeds for a complete habitat. The seed ball could contain plant potential for an entire ecosystem.  It can be made by anyone, anywhere in the world where there is clay, compost, seed and water.  The ball is tossed wherever you want to plant, rain moistens it, the clay ‘melts’ its nutrients into the surrounding soil and blankets the seeds with minerals & vitamins.  Covered & moist, they germinate, voila!  Flowers!  Or veggies! 

In honor of Masanobu Fukuoka, the Father of Seed Balls, The Story of Seed Balls by Jim ‘Catfish’ Bones:


Feb 27  Santa Barbara Guerilla Planting Day!  The Seed Ball Party is purposely planned to precede a day of Guerilla Planting, planting anything and anywhere, respectfully!  Particularly it is emphasizing planting unused land – flowers or vegetables!  Some people will be planting trees!  Several downtown Santa Barbara businesses are already planning creative events!  One brewery is going to plant Barley!   

Feb 26  10 AM  Vegetable Gardening with Oscar Carmona  La Sumida NurseryRain or shine. Class is free! 

Feb 26-27 Santa Barbara Spring Home & Garden Expo!  HOME should be an experience, not just an address. 
Earl Warren Showgrounds     Saturday 10 – 5,  Sunday 10 – 4
Admission: Adults $6.00, Kids 12 & under are free  Parking: Free
*A portion of the proceeds benefit the Community Environmental Council (CEC) 

Fairview Gardens Urban Homesteading is an exciting new series of classes scheduled throughout the year.  Some of the classes filled the first day the announcement was made, so sign up right away for any you are considering, and ask to be on a list for a 2nd group to be formed!   It is a wonderful way to reconnect with the earth. The series, designed by the staff at Fairview, covers everything from container gardening, composting and raising chickens, to canning, preserving, and more, taught by the best people in our community on site at the farm.  (805)967-7369  info@fairviewgardens.org

Apr 16 & 17, CEC’s Earth Day Festival 2011!

Give your Valentine a basket of veggies and some seeds to plant!  Have a great month!

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