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Greenhouse Henry Ford Hospital Michelle Lutz

Michigan’s Henry Ford West Bloomfield Hospital upgraded the condition of its food by adding a greenhouse. Michelle Lutz oversees production of vegetables, fruits and herbs, used in preparations such as braised romaine salad. / Photos courtesy of Henry Ford West Bloomfield Hospital

Greenhouse seedlings, transplants are ready six to eight weeks early and you can grow Out-of-Season Treats in winter! Pest and disease free equals greater production! For institutions like hospitals, greenhouses are workhorses! A greenhouse is a most valuable part of a productive home garden. Seedlings are ready for earlier planting. Hospitals want the best food possible for the health of their patients, and can’t afford to be weather dependent.

As a home gardener in coastal SoCal areas you may question the need for a greenhouse. Though unheated, ours at our mile-from-the-beach community garden is well used! We often run out of space for everyone’s seedlings as we get closer to planting time or the weather warms! Even unheated, an enclosed space is heated by the sun during the day and doesn’t get so cold at night, no chilling winds or late freezes in there! Seedlings are protected from marauding pests, birds, walkabout creatures. Foothills and inland gardeners get more heat and more COLD! They really can use greenhouses to advantage.

Greenhouse Long CucumbersIn addition to starting preseason transplants, in a heated greenhouse you can grow out of season tomatoes, peppers, lettuces, cucumbers, beans, eggplant, zucchini, cantaloupe! Herbs, chard, raspberries and strawberries! And winter crops too if you just have too much snow outside!

Your greenhouse doesn’t need to be huge or showy. It just needs to do the job.

Super options!

Our land is flat, but yours might have slopes and you could choose to have an earth shelter space complete with indoor shower! See also Heating Greenhouses Without Electricity!

Greenhouses come in a vast variety of shapes from squares to pillowdomes! Buy a premade kit or design and build it yourself entirely to your specs.
You can have a 2′ wide up against the chimney mini to a palatial entire rooftop greenhouse with an elegant view!
You may have a built in the ground greenhouse cousin, a cold frame, or an indoor kitchen window box.

Materials vary from hoop frames to the fanciest filigree and glass, cob or strawbale! They can be spanking new, made of have-arounds, or be recycled from demolition sites! Covering materials can be poly films, panels, glass and glazing. There are so many new products, techniques, new research, all the time, and each person’s needs are so different, it is wise to check these things out for yourself. Talk with several ‘experts’ on each topic. Read up online. Compare. See what you really want. See what will do the best job for your needs.

If you have space for a larger greenhouse, consider gardening some of your crops in it! Hoop houses, or high tunnel farming is a recent invention. They are certainly the larger version of traditional row covers! There are huge commercial installations. Yet home made hoop houses can be no bigger than 8X8, so easy to put up a child can do it!

  • Season extension is the #1 advantage. 30 days on the front end and 30 days on the back end of the growing season is equivalent to moving your farming operation 400 miles to the south!
  • Yields increase when your plants are protected from excessive rain and wind. When a more ideal growing temperature is maintained, a reduction in temperature-related stress, fruit set, fruit size increases.
  • There is no bolting, so no loss of your plant’s production.
  • Because temperatures are maintained, you can plant when you want to, not have to wait until conditions are favorable.
  • Soil conditions are more controlled, less moist, less to no fungi – wilts, blights.
  • No pests, no pesticides! No birds, small mammals.
  • Plus, they are movable!

Greenhouse Energy Efficient Attached Lean ToEnergy efficient attached greenhouses make a lot of sense. The home, and these bricks, help heat the greenhouse for free! Some attached greenhouses are beautiful walkin sunrooms, garden rooms, conservatories!

If you decide to build a greenhouse yourself, first check on local ordinances and with your neighbors. Place it conveniently, near electrical and water access if possible. Choose a location with a winter angle for maximum light, as much sun as possible. Use trees for windbreaks if necessary.

Know your prevailing wind direction, be sure it is well anchored. Use concrete blocks with eye hook attachments, sink posts or anchoring stakes, or use sand, not rocks, on the windward base cover.

Your roof choice tells us what kind of weather you have! Steep slopes and insulated lower areas tell us you are in high cold country with snow and need to decrease your heating costs. Medium slopes with rounded shoulders are good in windy and rainy areas. An extended slope on one side that faces the sun tells us you may get a lot of shade from trees on one side.

Doors make a difference. If you are in a windy area, you might choose sliding doors that can be secured and weather stripped versus velcroed flaps, zippers or swing out doors that blow away or animals could get through.

Ventilation is key! Hot days are hot! In two shakes a greenhouse can to get up to 110 degrees! Doors and windows can be the vents if intruders are not an issue, otherwise, ceiling vents are best. Solar devices can be set to open when temps hit a high level. Fans may be needed.

Greenhouse sloped for lots more Solar energy!Electrical! Get advice from a greenhouse experienced professional because of the extreme conditions: heat, wet, cold. Make sure that person knows local codes
Consider solar lights, vent openers, fans or simply long sloped sides to have lots more solar energy as in the image!
Growlights? Yes!
Night light to see by
Computer monitor

Irrigation tips! Put your timer OUTSIDE! Make & see your adjustments without getting wet! Mini drop down sprayers or foggers at varying adjustable heights along an overhead line are fabulous! Consider recycling your water – is it legal to use grey water where you live? Collect rainwater.

A word about Damping Off. Damping off is a common problem with seedlings started in containers, indoors or in greenhouses. Per Planet Natural: ‘Several fungi can cause decay of seeds and seedlings including species of rhizoctonia, fusarium and phytophthora. However, species of the soil fungus pythium are most often the culprit. Damping off typically occurs when old seed is planted in cold, wet soil and is further increased’ by poor soil drainage.

Disease Cinnamon Damping Off PreventionThe super simplest prevention is Cinnamon! Just sprinkle it on the soil! Sprinkle on plant injuries and they will heal. It is a rooting hormone. Mildew, mold, fungal diseases? Mix 4 tablespoons cinnamon in a half gallon warm water, shake it vigorously, steep overnight. Strain through a sieve or coffee filter and put it in a spray bottle. Add ¼ teaspoon liquid dish soap as a surfactant, lightly spritz your plants, undersides and tops of leaves! (In Santa Barbara area buy it in big containers at Smart & Final.) Also, it repels ants!

Pathway and Flooring best for your plants and feet! Have a sturdy pathway that stands up to wheelbarrow use. A non muddy pathway saves your greenhouse floor. A raised flooring keeps you from having a muddy mess. Drainage is necessary so there is no rot or mold. Heated flooring is the best. There are great options, more and less expensive! Concrete, rubber matting saves your feet. Dirt, my last choice, and/or pavers. Decomposed granite, pea gravel, raised wooden slats, pallets, straw, chips – use weed mat underneath! Use pest protection wire under weed mat and soft flooring choices. No gophers, no mice, squirrels, bunnies or snakes, thank you.

Greenhouse Shelving FanShelves and Worktable

Make your work table a good working height for you
Shelving needs to be safe and well supported
Construct your shelves wire covered like the top shelves in the image, or like the lower shelves, out of spaced boards so water drains, the boards dry, there is no mildew or mold.
Enough space between boards makes it easy to clean
Or use open wire metal shelving that allows drainage and dries
If there is lower shelving, slant it down from back to front

  • so you can see what is in the back
  • It is easier to get items in back out – keep heavier items to front
  • No water clings to it – stays dry, no rot or mold

OR some say don’t have bottom shelves so there is no nesting space for mice or chipmunks – they WILL eat your plants! You want to be able to SEE the ground! Depends on how critter secure your house is.

Rather than just the greenhouse, consider a 4 part working complex! A storage shed, the greenhouse, a covered work area and hardening off area.

Tool & Gear Storage could hold your tools and supplies!

Wheelbarrow, all tools – shovel, rake, pitchfork, spade fork
Small tools – trowel, clippers, sprayers
Bags of compost, potting mixes etc
Plug trays, biodegradable containers, labels
Gloves, apron, work boots, jacket
Greenhouse gear & replacement materials

Greenhouse Support Supplies!

Heating gear – heaters, heating mats
Cooling systems – fans
Irrigation, misting items
Lighting – grow light, night light
Thermostat, humidity (no mold), temperature   devices, CO2 generators
Secure, safe-for-children and pets, dry storage containers

Your Workspace needs a sun shade top and wind screen side. It would be a good place for your composter, worm bin and might be a good place for your rain collector barrels

Care and Maintenance

Seasonal checks, reset watering needs, replace brittle coverings
Routine cleaning inside and out
Equipment
Sterilize propagation area
Ventilation – Heat, condensation. Insulation – Frost
Deal with pests and diseases immediately!

Greenhouse Reused Doors and WindowsGreenhouses made of reused doors and windows are much more green than recycling!

Sustainable Greenhouses are often compost or solar heated!
They have heated benches and floor because root zone temperatures are more critical to plant growth than leaf temperatures. By maintaining an optimum root zone temperature, greenhouse air temperatures can be lowered 15° F!
LED’s balance good light, cooler temps
Hydroponics (preferably aeroponics) remove excess heat and water vapor
CO2 is recycled by breaking down old plant debris in a digester
Soluble components of the plant debris can be incorporated back into the nutrient solutions.

5 Sustainable Sources to stir your thinking!

  1. Eco-Friendly Greenhouses
  2. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service:  Greenhouse Production
  3. Sustainable Architecture, Greenhouse Book & Video List
  4. Kiva’s straw bale greenhouse – the time & money it takes
  5. The Ghandi of Greenhouses – The Greenhouse Biz

Rooftop greenhouse with a view of the city! Germany Fraunhofer UMSICHT

Fresh City Tomatoes, Any Time! On his way home from the office, the computer scientist harvests tomatoes from his company‘s rooftop greenhouse. No food miles! Why not produce lettuce, beans and tomatoes where most of the consumers are to be found: in the city? The flat roofs of many buildings are well-suited for growing vegetables. Rooftop greenhouses can also make use of a building‘s waste heat and cleaned waste water. Solar modules can do the rest. This uptown rooftop greenhouse urban garden is in Germany. Image courtesy of Fraunhofer UMSICHT.

Greenhouse Conferences! Tradeshows, sustainable, educational. Local, international! If you love greenhouses, might want to do urban agriculture business, just want to get involved, check these out online. There are different sponsors, different locations each year!

Whatever your special connection is, in SoCal, before our winter rains and cooler weather, late summer, early fall are perfect for getting your very own fine greenhouse up and running! If you miss that window, very early in the new year is good so you can start seedlings for early March plantings!

You might decide to sleep in it the first night!


The Green Bean Connection started as correspondence for the Santa Barbara CA USA Pilgrim Terrace Community Garden. All three of Santa Barbara’s community gardens are very coastal. During late spring/summer we are often in a fog belt/marine layer most years, locally referred to as the May grays, June glooms and August fogusts. Keep that in mind compared to the microclimate niche where your veggie garden is. Bless you for being such a wonderful Earth Steward!

Love your Mother! Plant bird & bee food! Think grey water! Grow organic!

 

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This post is the 2nd of how to plant a lot in your urban garden, and up your production in a small space!  Please also see the 4.17.10 post!  Thanks, and good planting to you!            

Gopher Basket

Gophers and other Blessed Pests First!   When I give this as a talk, you should hear the groans from my listeners when I say we must start by talking about gophers.  They know what I’m talking about.  I want to emphasize to take care of this before you even think of doing anything else.  I’ve seen so much heartache over lost plants, literally tears, some of them my own.  You lose the months it took your plant to grow, and the food you would have gotten from it.  All that work raising your little plant, having a personal relationship with it, and suddenly, with no mercy, our hungry little friend takes it, gone.  Just gone.  So, before you start planting, install 1/2″ aviary wire or hardware cloth barriers.  Aviary wire is cheaper, doesn’t last as long.  How long it lasts depends on your soil.  I’ve heard anywhere from 3 to 10 years.  Do what your budget lets you.  Not taking care of this means a lot of lost production time.  If you can’t do the whole bed, do parts, or buy or make gopher wire baskets, especially for your favorite plants you use all the time, the most.            

What to plant:  experiment with how much you need, KEEP RECORDS!  Over planting a veggie cuts down on space for variety, and may produce more than you can or want to eat.  In your records include where you got your plant, the name of its variety, planting and harvest dates, yield, what you liked about it, didn’t, could have done better for it, comparisons with other varieties of the same plant, other kinds of plants.              

Avoid loss of production time by choosing plants for success!             

  • Choose disease & pest resistant varieties for your area.
  • Choose slow bolting varieties for longer harvest per square foot.
  • Choose heat tolerant varieties that need less water, cold tolerant.
  • Choose tomato and pepper varieties that produce small fruit. The smaller the size of the fruit, the more fruit the plant will produce.
  • Choose a plant that produces year round, year after year.
  • Don’t raise onions, potatoes (unless you are Irish 🙂 ), winter squash and cabbage. Those crops are relatively cheap to buy and don’t rely on “just picked” freshness for quality.

When to plant:  In a small garden this becomes critical mass.  If you plant a seed when the ground is too cold for it, it rots, no plant, you lose time.  If you plant too soon, it may be too cold and no blooms are able to form, or if they do, no set fruit.  Learn your plants’ needs.              

Greenhouse, Lots of Solar

Greenhouse!  Getting a head start is an age-old planter’s trick, just about required repertoire for a gardener’s tool basket!  There are so many ways to do it!  Greenhouses are the cat’s meow!  But if you don’t have one, don’t let that stop you.  Dig a protected underground spot, cover with glass or plastic and raise your plant babies while the over head winds are howling!  Start ’em in your south-facing kitchen window, in the garage with grow lights, in a free-standing clear plastic wardrobe closet you pop into your garden, use a protected spot in your garden as a mini nursery!  Be creative!  While your winter or summer plants are finishing, start your next season’s plants!  You will be 6 to 8 weeks ahead!  Now that’s excellent use of production time!              

How much to plant:  Think of how much production per square foot you will get.  Will that serve your needs compared to the variety of the production of the entire garden, that plant itself?  For example, would a wide Romano bean be more productive than a slim bean?  Would a plant that has a longer production period be more useful?  Are you wanting to can and have a lot of harvest at once, or do you want table tomatoes all summer?             

Don’t plant too much of one vegetable. Two zucchini plants may produce more than enough.             

Or, plant a lot of what you grow well, grows well on your space, then trade for other goodies?             

Where to plant:  Do you need to assure having that plant?  Biodiversity, planting in different places throughout your garden, may be more effective that row cropping or putting all of one plant in one place where if disease or a pest comes, you lose them all as the disease or pest spreads from one to all.  See also Rotation, below.                          

Succession planting:  Limited by a small available area, choose your favorites that you want a steady supply of and use your self-discipline to wait to periodically plant another installment of your crop.  We have heard about spring planting, and most of us ask, ‘Did you plant your garden?’  With succession planting, part of your garden is going to be bare unless you have planted successively before, and each area that is finishing becomes available sequentially.  The question, ‘Did you plant your garden?’ no longer applies.              

If you have a short season garden, fast maturing plants like radishes, lettuces, can be planted successively as fillers in any spare spot.             

With succession crops, plant in the northmost area first; later plantings will not shade previous plantings too much as the first plantings finish.              

Rotation:  Hard to do in a small plot.  What is the size of a ‘small’ plot?  10′ X 20′ would be considered a small plot.  Small for what?  In a 10′ X 20′  plot, the length north to south, it is logical to put tall plants to the North, shorter to the South so they don’t shade each other.  That is especially true in winter when the sun is low in the South.  So where do you rotate your tall tomatoes too?!?              

You can space them with 2’ open space between them one year, plant in the open spaces the next year.  But is that enough tomatoes?  Do you want more?  In a small plot, dig your planting hole, fill with compost and worm castings and any other amendments you want to use, ie mycorrhizal fungi, then plant in the compost!  If your plant is a manure lover, add some.  As you water, the compost, etc., juices (compost tea), go down into the soil below feeding the roots as they grow.  You have to ‘build’ new soil as you go.             

If your 10′ X 20′  plot is lengthwise east to west, you have more ‘tall’ area to plant in the north.  But it is still hard to rotate in small plots.  Feed your soil well.             

Soil Depletion:  In a small plot, this is an issue.  The soil simply gets used up, turned into plants, pulled up with the roots.  If at all possible, make compost!  Bring in alfalfa/manure/fresh organic green trim and make a hot pile.  You can do this simply with a removable reusable chicken wire enclosure.  When not in use if folds up into little space.  You can plant where the compost was made.  Start your pile in enough time to use before major planting.              

  • Compost:  You put in your soil.  It contributes to the slow release of Nitrogen, the prime ingredient plants need for good growth.  It can also be used as mulch, 2” minimum, 4” better!  http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/hortcrop/h885w.htm           
  • Vermicompost:  Worm castings are very low in N (Nitrogen) but have special plant-growth hormones.  The humus in castings improves your soil’s capacity to hold water.  Castings suppress several diseases and significantly reduce parasitic nematodes, aphids, mealy bugs and mites.
  • Mulch – You put on the surface to preserve your soil, keep it cool and moist, to prevent light germinating weed seeds from sprouting.  Organic mulches, like barks, straw, leaves, what you chop and drop, deliberately grown mulch plants that are then felled in place, can be nutritious to your soil as they decompose.  Mulch especially makes sense if you are a busy person since it cuts down on weeds.  Weeds use up your soil, nutrients your plants need.  So in the long run, as it prevents weeds and feeds your garden, you also have less expense feeding your soil. 

   

Irrigation:  In a tightly planted biodiverse veggie garden where things are changing rapidly, soaker hoses may not be the answer.  They are more useful for row planting and more permanent non-veggie plantings.  It is hard to tell how much water your plants are getting when water pressure varies much, not just from others using water at a community garden, but from the part of the hose nearest the spigot to the end of the hose.  If you use mulch it may be hard to tell how much water your plants are getting, and in time, the hoses can get buried more deeply than your most shallow rooted plants!  Plants that no longer need water, some tomatoes, mature onions that you want to dry, may get water you no longer want them to have and it may be difficult to move your hose far enough away unless  you plant at the end of the line, remove the hose, double it back on itself.  But all that finagling may be tiresome if not time-wasting.  If you are a vigorous farmer, you may cut your hose while digging.  And there are going to be times when the hose simply gets old and tired and the holes get bigger.  Repairs are easy, but it does take your time.   

Simple Sprayer

I have come to prefer hand watering and I find I have a closer relationship with my garden as I watch and water.  It is difficult to water underneath when you hand water, but keep it in mind to do, especially if you have just done some foliar feeding – don’t wash away all that food on the leaf.  Water plantings of small seeds very gently with a low flow, or by hand with a sprinkler can so seeds don’t get washed away, buried or unburied, or tiny seedlings damaged.             

That said, it is easy to lay soaker hoses in a small plot.  If you intend to leave them there once laid, put them about 8” apart,  so you can plant just about anywhere without relaying the hose.  Slightly bury or lay mulch on top of your hose, to prevent evaporation loss and to keep your plants from getting wet and mildewing, reduce snail/slug habitat!   Well laid hoses save time and water.  You can be watering while you do maintenance and harvesting.             

If you are really busy or are gone for periods of time, get an automatic timer.  Some water is better than no water.             

Pollination:  Put some buzz in your population by having a few bee attractor plants either in your garden or nearby!  Pollination equals production, so this is critical.  Otherwise, you hand pollinate.              

Managing Pests and Diseases:  First rules are to keep your plants healthy – well fed, make healthy soil, and reduce risky habitat.  Make habitat, plants for beneficial insects, poles for birds, rocks for lizards!                  

The small plot advantage is you can hand manage pests, cutting expenses.  You can track individual plants and see what they really need when they need it, remove immediately if necessary.  The disadvantage is it you lose it, it’s gone and you have to start over if there is time.  For some plants, if you miss the growing window, you are out of luck.              

Harvest:  In a small plot you can’t afford not to harvest plants that stop production if not harvested frequently, peas, beans, cucumbers.              

Seed Saving:  There may be little space or time to let plants grow to the seeding stage.  But if you have a very favorite plant – tasty crop, strong, exceptional production, it may pay to let it seed.             

Cover cropping:  If you need to miss a season or want to give your soil a rest and a boost, plant nitrogen fixers that as they grow, are living mulch, then later you knock down, chop into the soil, becoming green manure.              

Your rewards:  The freshest, most nutritious, tastiest organic veggies ever!  And the outdoor enjoyment, therapy, and relaxation a garden can give.
 
Go ahead, do it, turn off your cell.

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